1. Neo-liberalism is an ideology which argues that human liberty and the free market are essential in the establishment of a natural, spontaneous socio-economic order that is more efficient and less coercive than interventionist systems produced by social democracy (Ellison, 2016: 67). Neo-liberals perceive monopolistic behaviour that crowds out alternative service providers, and bureaucracies' tendencies to protect their own budgets as the biggest evils of state welfare. The approaches of both the New Labour Government, and the Coalition Government can be understood as neo-liberal. New Labour: emphasis on privatisation and market mechanisms. Coalition: 'Big Society', i.e. withdrawing the state from welfare provision, letting family/friends and voluntary or community organisations do more. Additionally the framing of state welfare itself as a social problem is neo-liberal(Manning, 2016: 25). In short, neo-liberalism considers the invisible hand of the free market sacred, and any state interference as unhelpful.

  2. "Immigration can also increase the demand for labour. Migrants expand consumer demand for goods and services. In the medium to long run, immigration can be expected to lead to more investment. Both effects result in greater demand for labour and thus increased wages and employment in the economy." http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/briefings/the-labour-market-effects-of-immigration/

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